LLM Program Regulations
Decisions concerning admittance to the LL.M program are taken by the Graduate Studies Committee or anyone authorized to decide on its behalf (hereinafter "the Committee"). The following are eligible to apply for the LL.M program:
1.1.1 Graduates of the LL.B. program at the Hebrew University Faculty of Law that hold a university level English language waiver and a point grade average of 80 or higher. Half a point of credit will be accorded to candidates that have graduated prioir to 2004, for every year that has passed between their year of graduation and 2004, up to a maximum of 10 points.
1.1.2 LL.B Graduates of another recognized high education institution in Israel, whose academic record is regarded by the Committee as equivalent to the academic record specified in section 1.1.1, and that hold a university level English language waiver.
1.1.3 The committee may set special conditions for admission of graduates of overseas law school programs.*
1.2 Special circumstances
1.2.1 Under special circumstances, the committee may, in its discretion, admit candidates that do not meet the formal eligibility criteria, on the basis of good quality legal research publications and special achievements in legal practice that attests to high legal capacity.
1.2.2 The committee may decide on supplementary course work and special conditions when admitting candidates who have graduated the LL.B. program at the Hebrew University Faculty of Law with grade point average between 78 and 80.
2.1 Candidates should enroll to the LL.M. program at the Law Faculty office of student affairs.
2.2 Candidates that graduated overseas law school programs should submit by the end of the month of May all application materials to the university office of overseas student admissions (late enrollment will be processed only with the special permission of Law Faculty office of student affairs). The committee may decide that the course of studies of graduates of overseas law school programs will include up to two mandatory courses from the LL.B. program.
3. Period of studies
3.1 The course of studies for the LL.M. program in both the research and non-research tracks, shall not exceed two consecutive years. Still, the committee may allow students, under special circumstances and for special reasons, to complete their course of studies over a period of three consecutive years.
3.2 Students participating in the LL.M. research track must submit their final thesis and take the oral examination on it within a year from the expiration of the period of time specified in section 3.1.
3.3 The studies of students failing to meet the aforementioned period of studies conditions will be suspended.
3.4 In special cases, the committee may allow students whose studies have been suspended to resume their course of studies, provided that the request to resume studies was submitted within three years from the date of suspension. The committee will determine whether to recognize courses studied by the student in question prior to suspension of his or her studies. It may recognize courses studied within 5 years prior to the date of renewal of studies.
4. LL.M study program
4.1.1 The LL.M. program offers courses in four topic clusters, each offering a number of specializations as enumerated hereby:
18.104.22.168 Public Law and International Law
22.214.171.124.1 LL.M. in Public Law and International Law
126.96.36.199.2 LL.M. in Public Law and International Law, specialization in Public Law
188.8.131.52.3 LL.M. in Public Law and International Law, specialization in International Law
184.108.40.206 Civil Law
220.127.116.11.1 LL.M. in Civil Law
18.104.22.168.2 LL.M. in Civil Law, specialization in Private Law
22.214.171.124.3 LL.M. in Civil Law, specialization in Commercial Law and Corporate Law
126.96.36.199.4 LL.M. in Civil Law, specialization in Intellectual Property Law
188.8.131.52 Criminal Law: LL.M. in Criminal Law
184.108.40.206 Jewish Law: LL.M. in Jewish Law
4.1.2 The LL.M. program in English will be offered with two specializations: 1. LL.M. in Human Rights and International Law; and 2. LL.M. in International Business Law and Intellectual Property.
4.2 Study tracks
LL.M. studies in Hebrew and English are conducted in two tracks: research (with a final thesis) and non-research study tracks (without a final thesis). Research track studies must be undertaken with a specialization; non-research studies may be undertaken with or without any specialization. All LL.M. students will commence their studies in the non-research study track and can apply during the course of their studies for admission to the research study track pursuant to the conditions specified in section 4.7.
4.3 Credit requirements
Research study track with specialization: 32 credits and a final thesis. Non-research track: 32 credits.
4.4 Program of studies for LL.M. research or non-research study tracks (with specialization)
4.4.1 Mandatory courses for LL.M. students – 4 credits: These courses are exclusively designed for LL.M. students. They cover theoretical aspects of law from a multi-disciplinary perspective.
4.4.2 Mandatory specialization courses – 4 credits: These courses, typically offered by the specialization director, are exclusively designed for LL.M. students. They provide a theoretical basis for studying the main approaches to the specialization topic.
4.4.3 One or more research workshops – 2-3 credits: The different faculty research groups (forums) conduct research workshops. Researchers from Israel and overseas present their recent work in these workshop sessions. Participating students are required to attend the workshop sessions and to prepare in advance position papers containing a critical review of the work to be presented in the session.
4.4.4 Two seminars relating to the specialization topic – 8 credits (total).
4.4.5 Elective courses relating to the specialization topic (or the sub-specialization topic): Until completion of the LL.M credit requirements.
4.4.6 Final thesis (research track only): See section 4.7.
4.4.7 In appropriate cases, the LLM students' advisor, after consulting with the specialization director, may allow students, to take courses from other departments that are close to the field of specialization, instead of elective courses at the Faculty (up to 4 credits).
4.5 Program of studies for LL.M. in English (research or non-research study tracks; with specialization)
4.5.1. Core courses – 8 credits
4.5.2. Two workshops – 4-6 credits
4.5.3. Two seminars relating to the specialization topic – 8 credits
4.5.4. Course on the Israeli legal system – 2-3 credits
4.5.5. Inter-disciplinary course from the Rothberg International School program – 2-3 credits
4.5.6. Elective courses relating to the specialization topic – until completion of the LL.M credit requirements
4.5.7. Final thesis (research track only): See section 4.7.
4.6. Program of studies for LL.M. without specialization
4.6.1. Mandatory courses for LL.M. students – 4 credits: See section 4.4.1
4.6.2. Choice of mandatory specialization courses offered in the different specialization programs– 4 credits or more: See section 4.4.2.
4.6.3. One or more research workshops – 2-3 credits: See section 4.4.3.
4.6.4. Two seminars from the LL.M. program – 8 credits (total)
4.6.5. Elective courses from the LL.M. program until completion of the LL.M credit requirements.
4.7. Final thesis for LL.M. research studies track
4.7.1. A student that completed at least half of his or her LL.M. program credit requirements, in one of the specializations, with a grade point average of 85 or more, may apply to the committee for approval of a final thesis topic. The student will specify in the application the name of a faculty member who has agreed to supervise the thesis. The final thesis will relate to the student’s specialization topic. The Committee may require that the student participate in a course on research methods and/or any other course at the Faculty or another department.
4.7.2. The final thesis shall be submitted in four copies to the faculty’s office of student affairs.
4.7.3. The final thesis will be graded by the academic supervisor and another examiner appointed by the committee. The supervisor and the examiner will subject the student to an oral examination (viva). The final grade for the thesis will be calculated as the average of grades awarded by the supervisor and examiner.
4.8. Approval of LL.M. program of studies
The committee, or whoever has been authorized by it, shall approve the program of studies.
4.9. Foreign language studies
A student who studies at the Hebrew University, with the committee’s approval, a foreign language (other than English or his or her mother tongue) will receive an exception from 4 credits of elective course studies from the LL.M. program.
4.10. Specialization in other faculties
4.10.1. Students studying for an LL.M. with specialization may combine their legal specialization with one of the following specializations offered in other faculties (hereinafter ‘external specialization’).
220.127.116.11. EU law specialization in cooperation with the European Studies Forum at the Humanities Faculty (16 credits) and studying a European language at an advanced level. This specialization is available to LL.M. students specializing in civil law and in public law and international law.
18.104.22.168. Specialization in environmental management, planning and policy in the center for environmental management, planning and policy at the Social Sciences Faculty (23 credits). This specialization is available to LL.M. students specializing in civil law and in public law and international law.
22.214.171.124. Specialization in gender studies, in the Lafer Center for Women and Gender Studies (16 credits).
126.96.36.199. Specialization in ethics and science at the Humanities Faculty (12 credits). This specialization is available to LL.M. students specializing in civil law.
188.8.131.52. Specialization in urban and regional studies in the institute for urban and regional studies at the Social Sciences Faculty (22 credits). This specialization is available to LL.M. students specializing in civil law and in public law and international law.
4.10.2. Students combining an LL.M. specialization with an external specialization must take legal course and seminars for 20 credits or more. These should include the courses in sections 4.4.1-4.4.4.
4.10.3. The chair of the committee and the academic director of the external specialization program may allow that legal courses or external specialization courses shall be counted as simultaneously complying with both sets of academic requirements (the legal studies requirements specified in section 4.10.2. and the external specialization requirements). In such a case, the student’s overall number of credits due will decrease, but cannot fall below 32 credits. Whenever similar courses or seminars are offered both in the Faculty of Law and the external specialization, the student must study the course or seminar in the Faculty of Law.
5. Regulation of Studies
Any issue not explicitly regulated in these Regulations would be governed mutatis mutandisby Chapters 4,6,8-10 of the Faculty of Law Regulation of Studies (applicable to all law students).
Notwithstanding Chapter 9 of the Regulations, in LL.M courses students are allowed to take only one exam in each course. An additional exam date will be given in cases of justified inability to attend the exam, as detailed in section 7.4 of the University Teaching Regulations, or in other cases in which the Committee (or anyone authorize by it) has decided that this is justified.
7. Award of LL.M. Degree
7.1. An LL.M. Degree will be awarded to students meeting all of the following conditions:
7.1.1. Completed his or her course of studies with a grade point average of 75 or more.
7.1.2. In the research track: Submitted a final thesis, undertook oral examination and obtained a grade of 75 for the final thesis.
7.1.3. Met any other requirements introduced by the committee, before or after the start of the academic year.
7.2. The final grade will be determined in accordance with the following index:
7.2.1. Research studies track students: LL.M. course of studies – 60% of the final grade. Final thesis (including grade for oral examination) – 40% of the final grade.
7.2.2. Non-research studies track students: LL.M. course of studies – 100%.
8. LL.M. Diploma
8.1. Students who have completed all of their obligations under these Regulations will be awarded a diploma indicating that they qualify as Masters of Laws (LL.M.) (hereinafter ‘the diploma’).
8.2. The diploma will list the student’s specializations, if he or she has specialized, and the sub-specialization, as specified in section 4.4, and any combined specialization if her or she has undertaken the external specialization mentioned in section 4.10. The diploma will be conferred upon the student in an annual ceremony in a specified date.
9. M.A. in Law with specialization in Jewish Law program
9.1. General provisions
9.1.1. The M.A. in Law with specialization in Jewish Law program (hereinafter ‘the MA in Jewish Law program’) is intended to allow those students with a B.A. in Humanities in fields related to Jewish Law, such as Jewish Thought, Talmud and Jewish History, to acquire an education in Jewish Law. Admission of candidates will be based on the admission criteria to the LL.M. program taking into consideration the topic of studies the candidate has undertaken during his or her B.A. studies and any other education he or she may have had.
9.1.2. Students who have successfully completed the MA in Jewish Law program will be awarded a diploma indicating that they qualify as Masters of Arts (M.A.) in Law. The diploma will specify the students’ specialization in Jewish Law.
9.1.3. Participation in the program requires supplementary studies for 18 credits, as specified below, and the 32 credits of the LL.M. program with specialization in Jewish Law.
9.1.4. Graduates of the MA in Jewish Law program will not be eligible for the LL.D. program (Doctorate in Laws). Admission to the LL.D. program requires the successful completion of supplementary studies for 40 credits, and writing a final LL.M. thesis.
- 9.2. Supplementary studies
9.2.1. Students not holding an LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws) will be required to complete 18 credits of supplementary studies. Students must successfully complete all of their supplementary studies before beginning to study courses from the LL.M. program.
9.2.2. Supplementary studies include the following courses offered as part of the LL.B. program in the Faculty of Law:
184.108.40.206. Jurisprudence (6 credits)
220.127.116.11. Two out of the following courses (6 credits each):
18.104.22.168.1. Criminal Law
22.214.171.124.2. Constitutional Law
126.96.36.199.3. Contract Law
188.8.131.52.4. Property Law
184.108.40.206.5. Tort Law
220.127.116.11. The selection of courses will be approved by the MA in Jewish Law program director. The MA in Jewish Law program director may allow students to take the LL.B. course in Introduction to Jewish Law as part of their supplementary studies credits.
9.3. LL.M. Program of Studies
Students required to take supplementary studies will also be required to take the full program of studies of the LL.M. program with specialization in Jewish Law.
10. Research M.A. program for students not holding an LL.B.
The Research M.A. program for students not holding an LL.B. (hereinafter ‘the Research M.A. program’) is intended to allow holders of academic degrees in other disciplines with a research orientation to acquire legal education, and to combine areas of knowledge for research purposes. The Research M.A. program comprises of supplementary studies of Law, LL.M. studies and writing a final LL.M. thesis. Graduates of the Research M.A. program will be awarded a diploma indicating that they qualify as Masters of Arts (M.A.) in Law in the research studies track. This diploma will allow them to apply to continue to third degree study programs. Note: Graduates of the Research M.A. program are not eligible to take the Israel Law Bar qualification examinations or to practice law in Israel. Only holders of an LL.B. degree may take the Israel Law Bar qualification examinations.
10.1. Program structure
10.1.1. Supplementary studies for 40 credits:
10.1.1.1. Mandatory studies:
10.1.1.1.1. Legal systems (4 credits)
10.1.1.1.2. Jurisprudence (6 credits)
10.1.1.1.3. Contract Law (6 credits)
10.1.1.2. One of the following two courses:
10.1.1.2.1. Criminal Law (6 credits)
10.1.1.2.2. Constitutional Law (6 credits)
10.1.1.3. Other mandatory and primary cluster courses until completion of 40 credits
10.1.2. Studies for the LL.M. program with a specialization for 32 credits pursuant to section 4.3.
* The committee decided that “Candidates who did not previously study at an educational institution where the language of instruction is English must submit official TOEFL scores or IELTS. The minimum TOEFL score required is 600 on the paper-based test, 250 on the computer-based test or 89 on the Internet-based test. The minimum IELTS score is 7”